On December 21, 2015 (80 FR 79423), the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) published a final ruling in the federal register to amend the Hazardous Materials Regulations in 49 CFR Parts 171, 172, 173 and 177 by establishing standards for the safe transportation of explosives on cargo tank motor vehicles and multipurpose bulk trucks transporting materials for blasting operations. This rulemaking is responsive to two (2) petitions for rulemaking submitted by industry representatives: 1. P-1557, concerning the continued use of renewal applications, and 2. P-1583, concerning the incorporation of an industry standard publication. Further, developing these requirements provides wider access to the regulatory flexibility currently only offered by special permits and competent authorities. The requirements of this final rule mirror the majority of provisions contained in nine (9) widely-used longstanding special permits that have established safety records. These requirements eliminate the need for future renewal requests, thus reducing paperwork burdens and facilitating commerce while maintaining a commensurate level of safety. This final rule authorizes the transportation of certain explosives, ammonium nitrates, ammonium nitrate emulsions, and other specific hazardous materials in both non-bulk and bulk packagings, which are not otherwise authorized under current regulations. These hazardous materials are used in blasting operations on cargo tank motor vehicles and specialized vehicles, known as multipurpose bulk trucks, which are used as mobile work platforms to create blends of explosives that are unique to each blast site. Finally, this rulemaking addresses the construction of new multipurpose bulk trucks. This final rule is effective January 20, 2016.